Haemorrhagic Smolt Syndrome (HSS) – Gross Pathology

Atlantic salmon, with visceral fat haemorrhage and pale liver.

HSS is a condition of unknown aetiology, which affects Salmo salar leading to dramatic pathological changes. The disease occurs in pre smolts, smolts and post smolts. Affected fish typically have good body condition, without obvious weight loss; they show lethargy, superficial swimming and dark colouration. Bilateral exophthalmia and increased respiratory rate can sometimes be observed The external gross findings include pale gills, with haemorrhages in the branchial arches and lamellae, plus petechiae and ecchymoses ventrally and at the base of the fins. Internally, generalized visceral...

Muscular Melanosis – Gross Pathology

Muscular melanosis.

The term melanosis is used to describe the presence of unusual amounts of melanin in abnormal areas. Melanin is considered to plays a defensive role, since it is capable of absorbing and neutralizing free radicals, cations and potentially toxic compounds derived from the breakdown and phagocytosis of cellular material. Inflammatory reactions and tissue degeneration in bony fish frequently involve melanomacrophages. These macrophages contain fragments derived from phagocytized debris and cells, often erythrocytes, and pigments such as melanin, lipofuscin and haemosiderin. In salmonids these cytoplasmic granules...